Thursday, October 30, 2014

Article from Scientific American: Mental Leaps Cued by Memory's Ripples

This is an interesting article I read in my RSS reader today. One of the notable concepts it discusses is the effect of "memory chains" activated at certain moments can inform future decisions.

They use the analogy of a musical orchestra. When you learn (and recall) individual concepts (in our case, flashcards), it is similar to playing a single musical instrument. At some point when one contemplates a decision, sometimes many disparately learned individual things chain together and shoot off a neurological symphony that can lead to the solution. Although one cannot say for certain how our brain works (It IS the most mysterious object in the universe), this certainly seems likely.

It is said that "chance favors the connected mind." Perhaps this is empirical evidence that supports such a statement.

Scientific American article

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Kanji Town + image-concept pairing = easy recall across many languages?

I was able to memorize about 3,000 Japanese characters and the character readings (ON yomi, the reading based on Chinese. Japanese characters can be read multiple ways, and the ON yomi is the only reading that is consistent and can be grouped). To memorize the reading, each character was "stored" in a location that signaled the reading of the character. For example, everything pronounced "kaku" is stored in Shifting Sand Land from Mario 64. I applied this to every possible reading, creating a fairly robust list of location-reading pairings. This was resoundingly successful at learning Japanese.

When I began learning Chinese I created the same system for that language. At least one hundred locations for at least one hundred possible readings. This time, I had a harder time "pinning" the characters to each location. I toyed with things, but while my overall recall was good, but less than ideal when compared to Japanese, which was almost instantaneous.

Things changed drastically when I tried a different method. I decided to give a few Chinese characters a specific person (Real or fictitious) that became the "mascot" for that character. For example, Tony the Tiger became the mascot for "Great," Anthony Weiner is the mascot for "Remorse" and Method Man is the mascot for "Method." Once the assigned mascots were "stuck" to the desired character (Using initially short-interval flashcards), to remember that the character for "Remorse" is pronounced "ao (4th tone)," I simply imagine Anthony Weiner (Remorse) hanging out in the location for "AO" (The opening level of Banjo Kazooie). To remember "Method" is pronounced "fa" (3rd tone), I simply imagine Method Man in the tech demo I saw for the game "Heavenly Sword."

Creating (a) the link between character "concept" and the desired "mascot image" and (b) the link between a location and the pronunciation took quite a bit of time. But the ease with which I can remember a character, it's reading and concept is astonishingly fast. I speculate that it is because the concept "method" is somewhat abstract, but "Method Man" is very distinct, and will not likely get confused with concepts like "option" or "way." It is also much easier to store a concrete image in a mental location when compared to an abstract one. After my spaced repetition program sent one of my character pronunciation flashcards 20 or 30 days into the future (And it was reviewed 3-5 times), I had very little problems recalling the word. I can almost "feel" when a word I am learning goes from a short term memory to a slightly longer term memory.

Now that I had adequately memorized this concept's pronunciation in Chinese, I was curious to see if I could remember "method" in Greek (A language I am not really learning... yet). In Greek the word is "τρόπος" and pronounced "tropos." After creating a location to correspond to "tro" (ElecTROplankton level from Smash Brothers), I tried to memorize "method (man)" in Greek, using the location to remind me of the beginning syllable; Method Man was hanging out in the Electroplankton level. After a few days and a few flashcard repetitions, I was able to remember it with as much ease as I did "method" in Chinese. Because I knew the Chinese word very well, there was no overlap when I tried to recall the Greek word. I have tried this with other words, and it has worked very well.

Here is what I am doing: Right now I am creating a list of words and images that correspond to each of them, just like "Method Man" corresponds to the concept "method." Over the last month I have been able to link about 1,400 images to 1,400 concepts, most of them based on the Chinese character keyword assigned to them from the book "Remembering the Hanzi." Many Chinese character readings I already know, and there is no reason to re-memorize them using this updated method, but with these characters I have begun memorizing the same concept in other languages (Russian, Turkish, Hebrew, Spanish, etc.). It takes about 10-20 days for the new reading to become automatic, and then I can move on to another language. Over the past month or so I have learned to say "cat" in 6 new languages, for example.

For long-term implementation, I think this method could be used to gobble up important vocabulary words for languages one desires to learn. My long term goal is to speak as many languages as possible (20+), and while this method might be cumbersome for just learning ONE new language, for learning vocabulary over multiple languages over time, this seems to be very effective.

(I was listening to a Let's Play that featured a Russian character that said "harasho!" which I memorized was "good" in Russian a few days before. That felt good.)

Has anyone tried anything similar to this? It is working SUPER well for me, I can learn words as quickly as I can create flashcards for them (At least that's how it feels).

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Fluent Forever - Language Learning Book With Pretty Good Advice

When it comes to language learning, very often books and blogs are overly dogmatic on their recommended methodologies ("This is absolutely the only way you can learn the language"), or they promise more than they can deliver. For example, Tim Ferris is a guy with many interesting things to say, but you must take him with a grain of salt. On his blog and in his books he makes the claim that one can learn a language in only three months using various "language hack" techniques. I am deeply interested in ANY WAY I can make memorization and learning languages easier, so I make sure to at least investigate any article or book that claims to help with this. While many suggestions made by Tim Ferris and others like him are helpful, very often they are not realistic. (Heck, there is a website where "fluent in 3 months" is literally in the URL)

Often a great deal of actual good advice is buried under a mountain of fluffy anecdotes or buzzfeed-style lists of "why being multilingual is good." Often the people writing such advice have the financial freedom to spend a great deal of time learning languages without worrying about a job (Or they are making money selling books about their "secret techniques").

Considering the current landscape of language learning books and internet material, when I saw the book "Fluent Forever," I was fairly skeptical. But after reading the book in its entirety, I was pleasantly surprised at how reasonable the advice of the book is.

Here are some of the most valuable points covered in the book:

-The core message is that Spaced Repetition Systems (SRS) should be used to "save your language mementos" that you gather while studying (Rather than a tool for bulk memorization with no context). This is accurate, because learning is done BEFORE memorizing (Not often recognized or enforced in language courses or schools).

-The internet is the world's biggest picture book. Instead of making flashcards that have things written in your native language ("Cat" or "dog"), flashcards should feature a picture of the thing you are trying to remember.

-Looking up words IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE will yield different results when compared to looking up the same word in your native language. This is because the pictures are filtered through the culture of your target language, and the overall images you see reflect the different thinking of those people. For example, "hot" in English easily includes to "sexually attractive," media that is popular in the cultural zeitgeist, and pictures of Will Ferrill ("So hot right now!").

-Using "Google Image Search Classic" will show sentences that include the word you are looking up on Google. This is helpful in creating full sentence flashcards and can help expand your grammar.

-Using services such as lang-8 allow native speakers to correct your attempts at making sentences, providing quick feedback (Depending on the language you are learning), removing a bit of guesswork in your language acquisition life.

Overall I was happily surprised that it wasn't filled with more fluff and Malcom Gladwell-esque feel-good pieces that point towards vague non-insights (Nothing against Malcom Gladwell, I have read most of his books; not sure what that says about me, haha). This book is worth at least taking a look at.

Although I don't agree with everything he says in the book (I don't think EVERY language flashcard should be only pictures), I have reexamined my learning style in light of the suggestions in the book. If they prove helpful, I will elaborate more on them in the future.

(Picture of Mugatu from keyyys [Deviantart page])

Interview with man that advocates unconventional retention techniques

Just because something is believed by a large group of people doesn't mean that it is true (At one point the world was believed to be flat, supported by Atlas, etc.). Today the concept of "learning" has been fairly misrepresented on many levels of education. Just as senseless traditions and myths have held mankind back, traditions in teaching (and learning) and myths of human memory retard the overall intellectual progress of the general public. Spaced repetition is not the silver bullet to this problem, but it certainly is a key component (At least I think so). I have started reading the book mentioned in this interview (Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning) within SuperMemo, I will post after I finish reading it and what new tidbits I find.

The interview here pretty much echoes the validity of a SRS-centric lifestyle. If you have been doing research on spaced repetition for quite some time, most of the details of this interview should come as no surprise, but it is nice to know that there is hard data to back up claims. At least you aren't believing something just because "it feels right."

Friday, June 13, 2014

The Battle Continues

This blog is not abandoned, and I have not given up on it. It is surprising how quickly time flies by. I always told myself "I'll post again on the blog," and other things end up getting in the way.

If an alien was watching me like a lab rat or something, he would not notice many changes. I still continue to learn using SuperMemo, continue to experiment on my memory, etc.

A few notable things have happened over the last year:

-SuperMemo 16 is out. Most of the large changes would be noticeable only to fanatics like myself, but I nonetheless embraced SuperMemo 16 from day 1. I hardly ever use Incremental Video (I use other apps to do the same thing), but a few of the changes (Such as quickly being able to use the "find" command, faster importing of large documents, etc.) are more than welcome.

-Touch screen Windows tablets are becoming normal. I purchased a Dell Venue Pro 8 for the purpose of doing SuperMemo on it, and while it isn't perfect, it is certainly a step in the direction I want (Tablet based Incremental Reading is my dream).

-Using SuperMemo to listen to music. I'll cover it in more detail later, but basically it is possible to use SuperMemo to keep track of what music you need to listen to (So you don't forget it). Come to think of it, I've been using SuperMemo to keep track of more and more of my entertainment life.

-My database is now above 70,000 items.

-My search for reliable vocabulary storage solutions (For new languages such as Arabic, Hindi, etc.) continues.

I hope to be more regular with updating you with my progress.

Thanks for your continued patience, keep learning!

Thursday, July 11, 2013

Formatting Flashcards

I've been both busy and without anything extremely relevant to say; rather than post fluff, I'll wait to I have something of substance to post.

In response to a question asked in a previous post: How do I format my flashcards in SuperMemo?

There are efficient ways of quickly importing flashcards in SuperMemo using excel, Q&A .txt files, and so on, but one unnecessary step that I enjoy taking is making each flashcard within SuperMemo itself. I do this by either pressing "ALT + A" to create a new flashcard or extract them from a topic as if I were incremental reading.

For example, to make flashcards of Pimsleur Spanish 1, I create a topic that features a picture of the product's packaging. As I hear a phrase that challenges my knowledge of Spanish, inside of that topic I record that phrase in English and then in Spanish; then I create an extract of what I just wrote down. After the lesson is done, I go through the extracted topics and make flashcards of that material. This way, the picture is featured in each Pimsleur Spanish flashcard (Pictures seem to be better at words in signaling what kind of knowledge is trying to be remembered).

Also, even though it is unnecessary I enjoy adding pictures to some of my newly created flashcards. I have a picture database of more than 2,000 pictures, and sometimes I will select a random picture to be shown when the answer is shown; sometimes the picture is relevant, sometimes it isn't. It's important that some pictures only be shown at the ANSWER portion of the flashcard, because if it were shown during the QUESTION portion the important link between the question and answer might be "overwritten" by the link between the picture and the answer. This is part of the reason why Rosetta Stone is so easy to cheat on, but that sounds like the subject of another post altogether, as I've had many friends of mine ask me if they should invest hundreds of dollars into that program... (Back to flashcard formatting)

The process of making flashcards from the topics can be time consuming, so while I make these flashcards I enjoy watching TV programs, "let's play" YouTube videos of long RPGs that I would love to play but don't have time for (I'm watching Mass Effect 1 now), my backlog of unwatched Colbert Report and Daily Show episodes and other general entertainment. It overall lengthens the amount of time spent making flashcards, but I get both the satisfaction of increasing my flashcard count AND being entertained.

I'm not against efficiently making flashcards using various methods (I had to do so when importing all of the Remembering the Kanji into SuperMemo), but sometimes I enjoy doing a few things inefficiently so I can have more fun.

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Finally Posting Again: Small Timer = Huge Success

I haven't been posting anything for quite some time for a number of reasons, but it all comes down to trying to strike a balance with posting things and keeping up with the thousands of other things I want to keep up with.

This is the main reason, though: for the past couple of months, I have been testing the use of a timer to "prime" memories for long-term retention by reviewing new material after 1 minute, 3 minutes, 10 minutes and 1 hour. It has been very successful at helping me commit very new things to memory. This includes:

-New Chinese characters
-Words in an unfamiliar foreign language for which I don't have an immediate frame of reference (Hindi, Russian, etc.)
-Location based mnemonic placeholders (Method of Loci) (More on this later)
-Dates and other number-based information

It has also been very helpful at committing to memory things that I already have an "edge" with, but it ensures that I almost always recall it after the first interval in SuperMemo. For example, in the past I would often learn a new Japanese or Chinese word, put that word into SuperMemo, but I couldn't quickly recall it when I had to review it for the first time in SuperMemo, often 4-9 days later. I would get the item wrong, then maybe get it wrong once more (2-3 days later), and after that I usually had no trouble remembering it. Since I began using this timer method for introducing material, very little has been forgotten when I review it for the first time. Words that I learn can be used almost immediately, which wasn't always the case in the past.

Since my previous post, I have added about 5,000 new flashcards to SuperMemo using the timer method to introduce and acquaint myself with the material. I have also been incrementally reading and learning various things related to science, art, religion, history, etc. (Which doesn't require using a timer to commit), but the bulk of my "experiment" time has been devoted to testing my capacity at learning difficult material using the timer.


Size of flashcard sets
I learned anywhere from 10 flashcards to 100 flashcards at a time (I went as high as 120 once or twice), and I found anything beyond 30 or 40 to be cumbersome, overly taxing and caused me to dread the review process. The "sweet spot" (For me, at least) seems to be 25-30 flashcards per set of new material. If the information is extremely difficult, 10-15 flashcards seems to be better.

Makeup of material
I found it helpful to mix extremely difficult material with slightly easier material. I'm not sure if this is for my own motivational benefit, but it was helpful at keeping me motivated. For example, one set of new material could consist of: 10 new Japanese words, 5 mnemonic items, 5 Chinese characters and 5 Hindi words. The mnemonic items and Japanese words are almost always easy to recall, while the new Chinese characters and Hindi words take a bit more effort. The smaller "easy victories" made it easier to exert myself at learning newer, unfamiliar stuff.

"Stickiness" factor
Since I began using a timer to commit "unsticky" information to memory,  it has almost always become "sticky" and therefore easy to remember in the short and long-term. A few items would be forgotten, but of the 5,000 or so items that I have learned over the past couple of months, a VERY small percentage of them have been forgotten (Less than 2%). In the case of those items, by simply "relearning" them using a timer to space out the short-term review intervals I've been able to "make sticky" those items also.

How I've integrated it
Whenever I have about 1 hour and 15 minutes of time, I start by reviewing the 25 new flashcards once or twice, then I start the first timer. After this, I surf the internet for a minute until the timer goes off; I then review the flashcards again and set the second timer for three minutes. During this time I typically do a small task (Clean up the immediate area, read a book, etc). After the three minute timer goes off, I review the flashcards and set a timer for 10 minutes. At this point I have quite a bit of time to do various things (Chores, prepare simple food, watch a TV show or news, incremental reading, etc.). After the 10 minute timer is done I review the cards again and set the timer for one hour. During this time, I can work on any extensive or engrossing task, and I often forget about doing flashcards until the timer goes off again. If necessary I can start learning another set of information during this hour, but I've enjoyed not doing that and chilling out a bit.

Thus, by adding just a bit of structure, I've found that I can quite easily integrate learning new, "unsticky" material while going about my day to day activities (Or at least the down time I have) so that I'm not spending 100% of my time on flashcards, but I still feel like I'm using my time wisely. As long as I have prepared material to learn, I can easily do 4 or 5 sets on a normal work day, which nets at least 100 new cards per day.

Implications
Having found a balance, I have been able to more precisely control the flow of new material into SuperMemo without overloading myself or creating a glut of incorrect responses. (For me) The obvious implication is that committing new languages to memory can become a very streamlined, steady and less painful process than it usually is. The same goes with things such as programming, medical information, etc., or careers that require committing "unsticky" frameworks of knowledge to memory. I'll elaborate on the language aspect in a future post, it's a different subject altogether.